From current production andmetal types

  • From current production andmetal types, the pyrometallurgical is the main method. The non-ferrous metalsmelting method can basically be divided into three categories, the firstcategory is a sulfide mineral raw materials for sulfur smelting, copper, nickelmetal belonging to this category; second category is the sulfide mineral rawmaterials before roasting or sintering production of metal, carbon thermalreduction, zinc, lead, antimony metal belonging to this category; sulphide oreafter roasting or oxide ore with sulfuric acid solvent extraction andelectricity quadrature method to extract metals from solution, a metalbelonging to the type of smelting methods are mainly of zinc, cadmium, nickel,cobalt, aluminum. The copper, lead smelter production of gold, silver anode mudstill using pyrometallurgical processes, general anode slime treatment includingdecopperization selenium, restore your lead smelting and refining silverelectrolysis, gold electrolysis and other processes. Lead anode mud by directsmelting, electrolysis or off selenium and copper removal copper anode mudmixed processing.

    Pyrometallurgical as the backbone processesof China'smajor non-ferrous smelter, grouped metallurgical production process, planning,directing, coordinating, and control and management. Smelting production werein high temperature, high pressure, toxic, corrosive environment, to ensure thesafety of operating personnel and equipment, we must pay special attention tothe implementation of the security measures, and efforts to improve the levelof mechanization and automation. Metallurgical industry is also the most pollutingindustries, waste, waste water, waste gas, easy to pollute the environment anddestroy the ecological balance in the non-ferrous metal productiondirectionally to environmental emissions, it should have the "threewastes" treatment project and utilization, as well as noise, vibration,odor, radiation and thermal pollution, destruction of the ecological balance,causing environmental pollution and harmful to people's health and biologicalgrowth.

    Nickel pollution is the environmentalpollution caused by nickel and its compounds. While nickel ore smelting andiron and steel smelting, a part of power slag with the air into the atmosphere.Nickel and its compounds in the calcination process also discharged, mainlywater-insoluble nickel sulfide (N iS), nickel oxide the (N IO), the metallicnickel dust, become the atmospheric particles. When the heating nickel powder wasencountered the combustion Chipboard screws Factory of carbon monoxide will generate volatile, avirulent carcinogen nickel carbonyl [N i (CO) 4]. Refined nickel workersexposed to a higher risk of nasal cancer and lung cancer incidence. Nickelplating industry, machinery manufacturing, metal processing industryÂ’swastewater often contains nickel, commonly used soda to treat industrialwastewater it generates nickel hydroxide [N i (OH) 2] precipitation andremoved. Nickel enrichment in the soil, settlement of atmospheric particulatematter containing nickel, nickel-containing wastewater irrigation, animal andplant debris rotting, are soil weathering of rocks and other sources of nickel.Plant growth absorbs nickel in the soil. The highest nickel content of theplant is green vegetables and tobacco, up to 1.5 3 ppm. The criticalconcentration of nickel toxicity on rice is 20ppm. In Chinese, the maximumallowable concentration of nickel carbonyl require 0.001mg/m3, the nickelsurface water maximum allowable concentration is 0.5 mg / L.